In the past, this has been a relatively easy question to answer: At the transmitter. But recent advances in technology as well as the advent of HD Radio and streaming audio have made the decision less clear cut, and the best answer is, "Well, it depends!". Placing the processor at the transmitter site has several advantages. If offers the ability to take a direct composite output to the exciter, or in the case of certain processor/transmitter combinations, to use Omnia Direct (composite over AES) to provide a direct MPX link. Using the composite output allows us to create peaks in excess of 91% (as opposed to using a pre-emphasized L/R output in which case we must leave 9% for the pilot downstream). In the case of Omnia.7 and Omnia.9, it also permits the use of such features as built-in RDS and, in the case of Omnia.9, the Auto Pilot feature. For Omnia.11, using the composite output takes advantage of the "One Louder" pilot embedding feature. So there are still definite advantages in terms of peak control and loudness when the processor is located at the transmitter site. These same advantages can also be realized when the processor is placed at the studio under two specific circumstances: One, when using a composite STL (though these are admittedly less common today than in the past) or two, when using a digital STL that is capable of handling a 192kHz bitstream signal in which case Omnia Direct can be used. On the flip side, placing the processor at the studio has advantages too. Equipment associated with generating HD-2 and HD-3 signals is typically located at the studio, so processors capable of handling these additional channels (such as Omnia.9) are best located there as well. The same is true for the processing (and/or encoding) of streaming audio, as encoders and servers are normally located at the studio. Finally, it is not unusual for a modern processor to operate with a throughput latency that make off-air monitoring difficult if not impossible (as does the operation of an HD-1 signal), so low-latency talent monitoring patch points or processing cores are included to feed talent processed audio; however, these are only practical if the processor is at the studio. Another consideration is network connectivity. It is increasingly common to have an internet connection at the transmitter site and all modern processors allow for remote control via TCP/IP. However, if your transmitter site lacks network or internet access, placing the processor there means any adjustments or observations must be made on-site. Installing the unit at the studio almost guarantees remote access (or a stroll down the hallway instead of a drive to the transmitter).